r: the instance of R¶
This class is currently a singleton, with its one representation instanciated when the module is loaded:
>>> robjects.r >>> print(robjects.r)
The instance can be seen as the entry point to an embedded R process.
Being a singleton means that each time the constructor
R is called the same instance is returned;
this is required by the fact that the embedded R is stateful.
The elements that would be accessible
from an equivalent R environment are accessible as attributes
of the instance.
Readers familiar with the
ctypes module for Python will note
the similarity with it.
>>> pi = robjects.r.pi >>> letters = robjects.r.letters
>>> plot = robjects.r.plot >>> dir = robjects.r.dir
This approach has limitation as:
The actual Python attributes for the object masks the R elements
- ‘.’ (dot) is syntactically valid in names for R objects, but not for
Behind the scene, the steps for getting an attribute of r are rather straightforward:
Check if the attribute is defined as such in the python definition for r
Check if the attribute is can be accessed in R, starting from globalenv
When safety matters most, we recommend using
__getitem__() to get
a given R object.
>>> as_null = robjects.r['as.null']
Storing the object in a python variable will protect it from garbage collection, even if deleted from the objects visible to an R user.
>>> robjects.globalenv['foo'] = 1.2 >>> foo = robjects.r['foo'] >>> foo 1.2
Here we remove the symbol foo from the R Global Environment.
>>> robjects.r['rm']('foo') >>> robjects.r['foo'] LookupError: 'foo' not found
The object itself remains available, and protected from R’s garbage collection until foo is deleted from Python
>>> foo 1.2
Evaluating a string as R code¶
Just like it is the case with RPy-1.x, on-the-fly evaluation of R code contained in a string can be performed by calling the r instance:
>>> print(robjects.r('1+2'))  3 >>> sqr = robjects.r('function(x) x^2')
>>> print(sqr) function (x) x^2 >>> print(sqr(2))  4
The astute reader will quickly realize that R objects named by python variables can be plugged into code through their R representation:
>>> x = robjects.r.rnorm(100) >>> robjects.r('hist(%s, xlab="x", main="hist(x)")' %x.r_repr())
Doing this with large objects might not be the best use of your computing power.